How do we attract the next generation of Earth Scientists

Selway, Kate1, Condon, Jo2, Przeslawski, Rachel3, Tiddy, Caroline4, Underwood, Narelle5, Cohen, David6

1Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Macquarie University, Australia, 2Marketing and Communications, AuScope, 3Discovery and Engagement, Geoscience Australia, 4Future Industries Institute and MinEx CRC, University of South Australia, 5NSW Surveyor-General and Chair, NSW Surveying Taskforce, 6School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales and Australian Geoscience Council

Join us to discuss how we might collectively and effectively promote pathways to diverse, exciting and meaningful Earth Science careers to late high school students across Australia.

Earth Science education in Australia is facing critical challenges. University Earth Science departments face low numbers of undergraduate student enrolments, which in some cases are threatening their viability. These low undergraduate enrolments reflect weak interest in Earth Science at the high school level, and result in insufficient skilled graduates to meet industry needs. This is bad for Australia, which needs skilled geoscientists for its environmental and economic future, bad for industry, which needs skilled graduates to continue to innovate, and bad for the students themselves, who miss out on fulfilling careers.

In this presentation we discuss efforts to promote Earth Science to students in late high school. We consider this to be a key focus within broader strategies to improve Earth Science education more generally. Students at this level are actively considering their university study options and many have little exposure to Earth Science or have negative perceptions of the field. University-level Earth sciences in Australia typically boast a higher than average retention of students from first year to subsequent years. Therefore, successful programs that attract more high school students into Earth Science could substantially increase graduate numbers even on a five-year time frame.

Many existing programs, run by government, industry, and academic groups, are already aiming to promote Earth Science pathways to high school students and in this presentation we will summarize some of these programs. Any successful program must be student-focussed and respond to the students’ own priorities, as illustrated by the increasing numbers of students studying climate science. Therefore, we will also summarize some of the broader data surrounding the attitudes and priorities of late high-school students. We consider the attributes of programs in other fields, most notably surveying, that have successfully produced measurable increases in high school student engagement and higher education enrolments. We present this analysis in the hope that it will help guide the discussion on how we can most effectively ignite the interest of late high-school students in pursuing Earth Science.


The authors come from a range of backgrounds in academia, government and industry and are united in wanting to help inspire more people to get excited about Earth Science.

Structural evolution of a 1.6 Ga orogeny related to the final assembly of the supercontinent Nuna: coupling of episodic and progressive deformation

Volante, Dr Silvia1,2, Collins, Prof William J.1, Pourteau, Dr Amaury1, Li,Prof Zheng-Xiang1, Li, Jiangyu1, Nordsvan, Dr Adam1,3

1Earth Dynamics Research Group, Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Core to Crust Fluid Systems (CCFS) and The Institute for Geoscience Research (TIGeR), School of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Australia, 2Institute of Geology, Mineralogy and Geophysics, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Bochum, Germany 3Department of Earth Sciences, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong

The poly-deformed Georgetown Inlier (GTI) in NE Australia has recently been suggested to record a 1.60 Ga orogenic event related to final Nuna assembly. However, the structural evolution of the inlier has remained poorly constrained at the regional-scale, and major tectono-thermal events occurred at c. 1.55 Ga. The GTI is the type-region for conceptualisation of crenulation cleavage development and where the foliation intersection axes (FIAs) approach has been applied. We re-evaluated both concepts by combining a multiscale petrostructural analysis with recent petrological and geochronological data. Three main deformation events (D1, D2, D3) and associated composite fabrics (S1, S2, S3) are identified in the GTI. The original NE-orientation of 1.60 Ga D1 compressional structures is preserved in the low-grade western domain, and the associated composite S1 fabric is retained as microstructural relicts within c. 1.55 Ga D2 low-strain domains to the east. Extensional D2 structures, characterised by a pervasive, high-grade, composite S2 foliation throughout the central and eastern domains, are interpreted as the footwall of a regional N-S-trending, W-dipping crustal-scale detachment zone. Syn-D2 S-type granites formed at 1.55 Ga as the detachment evolved. D1 stage was associated with Nuna assembly, whereas D2 represents post-collisional extension. Progressive foliation development occurred twice in the GTI, at 1.60 Ga (D1) and 1.55 Ga (D2), but the previous FIA analysis only records the 1.60 Ga event and cannot be easily reconciled with the regional structural analysis. This study highlights that a multiscale and multi-disciplinary approach is required to unravel the structural history of orogenic belts.


Our interest lies in reconstructing the structural, magmatic and metamorphic history of Proterozoic inliers to unravel the evolution of NE Australia during the Mesoproterozoic final assembly of the supercontinent Nuna by applying a multi-disciplinary and multi-scale approach which combines structural analysis with geochronology, metamorphic and igneous petrology and geochemistry.

Mineral and petroleum potential in the South Nicholson region, and the NDI Carrara 1 stratigraphic drill hole

Jarrett, Amber1,2, Bailey, Adam1, Carr, Lidena1, Henson, Paul1, Schofield, Anthony1,2, O’Rouke, Angela1,2, Roach, Ian1,2, Budd, Anthony1,2, Munson, Tim3, Williams, Ben3, Symmons, Jack3, Close, Dorothy3

1Geoscience Australia, Canberra, Australia, 2MinEx CRC, Canberra, Australia, 3Northern Territory Geological Survey, Darwin, Australia

The MinEx CRC-led National Drilling Initiative (NDI) is the world’s largest mineral exploration collaboration designed to undertake precompetitive geoscience research in underexplored, but potentially prospective regions. One of the first NDI projects is being undertaken in the South Nicholson region of the Northern Territory (NT) as a collaboration with Geoscience Australia and the Northern Territory Geological Survey.

The South Nicholson Basin, and underlying Lawn Hill Platform region, have the potential for sediment‑hosted base metal mineral deposits including critical minerals and hydrocarbons. The region is poorly understood compared with the neighbouring resource‑rich areas of the McArthur Basin and the Mount Isa Province. Providing baseline data in frontier basins is essential as legacy data coverage can often be inadequate for making investment decisions, particularly with new commodities where exploration may not yet have provided the required information.

In 2017, Geoscience Australia acquired the L210 South Nicholson Deep Crustal Seismic Reflection Survey. This survey demonstrated the existence of an approximately 1550 km2 sedimentary depocentre underlying the surface sedimentary rocks of the Georgina Basin, and coincident with a prominent gravity low. This depocentre has been termed the ‘Carrara Sub‑basin’ and its successions may host a continuation of the resource-rich rocks located on the northern Lawn Hill Platform of northwest Queensland, in addition to South Nicholson stratigraphy that has never been sampled by drill core.

MinEx CRC and its partners seek to better understand the geology and resource potential of the Carrara Sub‑basin through the drilling of the first deep vertical stratigraphic borehole in the region –the NDI Carrara 1 stratigraphic borehole. This borehole has been designed to answer key scientific questions suggested by Geoscience Australia and the Northern Territory Geological Survey including determining geological and geochemical characteristics of sedimentary units from fresh drill core, identifying any evidence of alteration or fluid flow, and finally determining whether there are favourable indicators for the presence of mineral or petroleum systems. To address these questions, both physical samples (e.g. drill core and cuttings) and downhole data (e.g. wireline geophysical data) will be acquired over the entire borehole interval, to a depth of about 2000 m.

Drilling of NDI Carrara 1 is set to be completed by the end of 2020. This presentation will provide a rationale for drilling the NDI Carrara 1 stratigraphic borehole and will present preliminary data generated through drilling.

The South Nicholson NDI has already provided and integrated new geoscience data and knowledge in the region, and NDI Carrara 1 will allow for direct testing of resource potential. This precompetitive data is fundamental to underpinning increased industry investment and sustainable economic development in this greenfield region of northern Australia.


Amber Jarrett is a Geochemist in the Minerals, Energy and Groundwater Division, Geoscience Australia. Her research interests include petroleum geochemistry, basin hosted resource potential, isotopes, biomarkers and early life. Amber graduated with a BSc (Hons) in 2008, majoring in both Geology and Biology, and a PhD in 2014 from ANU.

Coping with COVID – Using Virtual Geological Objects for On-Line Earth Science Education

Roach, Dr Michael1, Orth, Dr Karin1, Scott,Dr Robert1

1Earth Sciences, University Of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia

Restrictions due to the global COVID pandemic have meant that most tertiary Earth science education has had to rapidly transition from face-to-face to primarily on-line delivery. Teaching Earth science in on-line environments has special challenges due to the ‘hands-on’ nature of typical practical and field-based programs. Fortunately, rapid improvements in visualisation methods and technology now allow educators to incorporate diverse, intuitive, immersive virtual objects into on-line education programs. Virtual objects can never fully replace the visual and tactile experience of visiting an outcrop or touching a specimen but they can augment and enrich traditional education programs and facilitate more effective on-line student experiences. 

At the University of Tasmania we have generated the world’s most comprehensive open-access collection of geological visualisations and have made extensive use of these objects in our undergraduate and postgraduate education programs. We have generated over 4000 photo-realistic three-dimensional geological models, together with thousands of full spherical panoramas and deep zoom images of significant outcrops and hand specimens. These visualisations have been integrated to produce virtual tours and virtual practicals that were used in our education programs prior to COVID and which have been crucial for recent on-line delivery. Student feedback on the use of virtual educational material has generally been very positive.

This presentation will showcase some of our recently developed resources and illustrate how we have utilised digital visualisations in our undergraduate and postgraduate educational programs. We will also discuss both student and educator perceptions on the efficacy of these new teaching resources and provide suggestions for how visualisations may be effectively integrated into future conventional educational programs when physical distancing limitations are removed.    


Michael Roach is an Earth Science educator at the University of Tasmania who has been pioneering new interactive, intuitive virtual methods for Earth Science education.

The emergence of eclogites linked to global arc chemistry change at 2 Ga

Tamblyn,Renée1, Hasterok, Derrick1, Hand, Martin1, Gard,Matthew1

1Department of Earth Sciences, the University of Adelaide, South Australia, Australia

The thermal state of the solid Earth determines the interactions between the mantle and the crust. The only way to probe the thermal conditions of the ancient Earth is from the mineralogical and geochemical record of thermally-driven processes, i.e. metamorphism and magmatism. The generally accepted model for the thermal budget of the Earth balances heat accumulated from accretion and the decay of heat producing elements, and indicates an overall cooling trend from ca. 3 Ga to present, encompassing the emergence of modern plate tectonics. The geological record however indicates this simple cooling model may not hold true. Thermally sensitive metamorphic mineral assemblages, such as eclogites, emerge in the rock record transiently from 2.2–1.8 Ga, and disappear again until ca. 0.8 Ga. Coincident with this transient emergence of eclogite, the global record of arc granite chemistry also shows significant step changes, most notably decreased Sr and Eu and increased Y and rare earth element concentrations, from 2.0–1.8 Ga, both of which point to a global increase in thermal gradients that intersected granite genesis. We suggest these changes occurred as the secular cooling of the mantle and crust was reversed by a net increase in the spatial extent of continental crust between 2–1.8 Ga, resulting in thermal insulation of the mantle. The following 1.2 billion years on Earth was dominated by a warm, insulated mantle and crust, maintained by stable continental volumes, which eventually cooled to allow the second emergence and widespread preservation of eclogites from ca. 0.8 Ga until present. While novel, this idea combines unrelated global petrological and geochemical datasets to explore the sensitivity of switches in the thermal evolution of the solid Earth.


Renee is finishing her PhD at the University of Adelaide. Her early PhD focussed on the pressure-temperature-time evolution of high-pressure rocks formed in the subduction channel. More recently, she has looked into the emergence of these subduction-related rocks on Earth.

Mine Waste as secondary raw material in the framework of mining circular economy: Legislation and applicability perspectives

Benzaazoua, Professor Mostafa1

1Research institute of mining and environment (RIME) – University of Quebec UQAT, Canada

Worldwide, the mining industry during the previous century played a so important role in the first industrial revolution, but at the same time mine operators increasingly suffered from a very bad image related to important environmental liabilities and difficult societal acceptance. In fact, mine exploitations that still follow the linear economy scheme extract finite ore resources and generate high volume of solid wastes (“Take-make-dispose”), where the only profits are those of the valuable minerals. For this reason, legislations and policies nowadays keep evolving to become increasingly binding regarding mine wastes management practices and rules and towards waste preservation from weathering and pollution release.

Mine waste management strategies remain complex to achieve effectively and very cost consuming. This is why the environmental management is becoming increasingly integrated in the mine life cycle, instead of being a late expenses after mine closure. More and more countries around the world privilege other actions that tend to reduce the amount of wastes to be deposited within mine site surfaces. Among actions already used, the mine industry proceed with i) upstream geometallurgical modelling, ii) smart and rational extraction of ores in underground or open pit mines, iii) maximisation of in situ reuse of mine wastes with or without reprocessing for novel practices like underground backfilling, and iv) waste reuse in the reclamation process (covers construction, once the mine wastes are proven clean, or after waste reprocessing for decontamination).

Presently, the main challenge of the mine of future consist of developing more symbiotic strategies that include more circular economy (“make-use-recycle”), to be able to valorize and recycle mine wastes outside of mining sites in other industrial sectors like geo-materials and infrastructures construction for civil engineering. This strategy depends on many factors that could conditioned by at least four conditions:  1) Adequate legislative arsenal, including incentives, 2) Geometallurgical integrated waste management strategy, including on-site ore/waste sorting, reprocessing and in situ reuse, 3) An efficient environmental prediction tool for mine wastes all along mine cycles and once within their recycled state, and finally 4) The possibility as well as the acceptance of reusing mine waste out of mining site. As finality, this philosophy may allow transforming wastes into secondary raw materials for other industrial sectors, such in civil engineering.

Mine wastes metal revalorization or reuse in situ and out of mine sites as sands and/or aggregates for roads, concretes, bricks manufactures … represent promising ways that might help in reducing the environmental impacts of mining activities. Some examples from works undertaken at RIME-UQAT or in Morocco around the phosphate mining industry will be presented in this presentation. A focus on the legislation and its importance, as the one in force in Quebec province (Canada), will be detailed as an example that encourage mining circular economy. Then, examples will be presented to illustrate the main challenges that have to take-up in this field.


Research institute of mining and environment (RIME) – University of Quebec UQAT, Canada

Self-consistent geodynamic models through the supercontinent cycle — testing the introversion and extroversion supercontinent assembly and the stability of LLSVPs

Chuan Huang1, Zheng-Xiang Li1, Nan Zhang2

1Earth Dynamics Research Group, ARC Centre of Excellence for Core to Crust Fluid Systems and The Institute for Geoscience Research (TIGeR), Department of Applied Geology, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia, 2Key Laboratory of Orogenic Belts and Crustal Evolution, School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, China

We developed a series of new dynamic models aiming to more realistic model the full supercontinent cycle, testing parameters critical for introversion vs. extroversion assembly, and mantle response to the alternative supercontinent evolution paths. The numeric simulations allow for self-generated subduction and supercontinent break-up during the supercontinent cycle. Subduction within the oceanic realm is implemented by considering plastic yielding in the oceanic lithosphere, through which rapid viscous weakening occurs when convection stress is larger than the yield strength. For subduction along continental margins, weak zones are introduced in oceans near the continental edge when the age of oceanic lithosphere is greater than a certain value (e.g., 180 Ma). Under such a model setup, our models are able to naturally generate Earth-like ocean-ocean and ocean-continent subductions.

By simulating the mantle evolution from the breakup of a supercontinent to the formation of the next one, we found that heat distribution (monitored by mantle temperature) between the mantle domains under either the supercontinent or the surrounding superocean, divided by the subduction girdle, provides an important control on how the next supercontinent forms. During the breakup stage, the average mantle temperature beneath the supercontinent (here denoted by Tc) is higher than that under the superocean (To) partially due to thermal isolation by the supercontinent. After the breakup, Tc decreases with the vanish of the thermal isolation effect, but To maintains at a similar level. It causes To shifts to a value slightly larger than Tc in the time soon after the breakup. Despite the limited higher energy level in the superocean-side, subduction/girdle retreat maintains the continuous drift of continents. After that, dispersing continents will reach their maximum distance from each other. The relative value of Tc and To after the time that greatest distance is reached determines whether the next supercontinent assembles through introversion or extroversion. Generally, models with a dense chemical layer above the core-mantle boundary tend to have introversion cycle, due to the much higher heat level (~50 K) in the superocean-side reserved by its larger chemical layer volume than the continent side. Two LLSVPs formed in our models during the full cycle locating in the ocean and continent sides, respectively. However, migrations up to several thousand kilometers for the two structures can be also observed.


Chuan Huang is a research fellow at Curtin University. He is working on geodynamic modelings and is currently focusing on the coupled continent-mantle process during a supercontinent cycle.

Unconventional Gas and resources

Garnett, Prof. Andrew1

1Centre for Natural Gas, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia

Primary energy demand is set to grow significantly over the next few decades. There is an increasing realisation that natural gas has several critical, complex and, to some extent, counter-intuitive roles in pursuing a “less than 2 deg C” scenario. With reference to the IEA’s Sustainable Development Scenario, natural gas will need to remain abundant and affordable and socially and environmentally acceptable in order to fulfil these roles. However, the proportion of gas that is traded as LNG looks set to grow, at least for a while, and importantly, the proportion of gas that comes from unconventional sources is also forecast to grow. This has significant implications, for example, for the confidence needed in sub-surface prediction of resources and their flow behaviour, as well as for the technologies and technical costs by which they are developed. The challenges of the future are harder than those of the past. There will be significant, new trials which only geoscientists and petroleum engineers can resolve. This presentation will highlight the main technical challenge areas and the contribution that earth science professionals will have to make within the complex and wicked energy trilemma.


Andrew leads the Centre for Natural Gas at The University of Queensland, which provides leading technical and social science research for the sector. Andrew has over 25 years international experience  in conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon exploration, appraisal and development projects, and carbon, capture and storage.

Preservation of ancient eolian landscapes beneath flood basalt: an example from the Officer Basin, Western Australia

Haines, Peter1

1Geological Survey of Western Australia, Perth, Australia

Eolian landscapes should be common on planets with an atmosphere, and were presumably more widespread on Earth before the evolution of land plants. However, preservation of intact ancient eolian landscapes from this time period are rare. The Ediacaran to middle Cambrian succession of the Western Australian (WA) Officer Basin is dominated by eolian sandstone with interbedded alluvial fan, fluvial and playa deposits. Outcrops of this succession near the western end of the basin (McFadden Formation) include eolian foresets on a massive scale, possibly exceeding 60 m in height. Farther east, the broadly equivalent concealed Lungkarta Formation displays steeply-dipping single foresets up the 30 m in thickness in drillcore, and other sedimentary features confirming an eolian mode of deposition. In the central Officer Basin in eastern WA this eolian sandstone succession is overlain by the basaltic Table Hill Volcanics (THV), a component of the widespread c. 511 Ma (middle Cambrian) Kalkarindji Large Igneous Province of flood basalts and associated intrusions. Although rarely exposed, the distribution of the flat-lying THV can be mapped from drillhole intersections and aeromagnetic datasets. In one area the aeromagnetic patterns indicate that the basalt flowed over and entombed an active dune field. Near the southern margin of the flood basalt the flows thinned to be thinner than the height of the dune crests, allowing the dunes (relatively non-magnetic) to be clearly distinguished from the interdune corridors (filled with magnetic basalt). The resulting aeromagnetic patterns, enhanced by viewing the first vertical derivative of the total field data, indicate south-southwest trending compound linear dune ridges, each separated by parallel interdune corridors. The parallel basalt flows terminate southward along an irregular north-northwest trending boundary that was likely controlled by an inflection in the paleoslope. Details of dune morphologies indicate east-northeast directed prevailing winds, somewhat oblique to the east-southeast migration direction the overall composite linear dune crests. Modern analogues can be found in extremely arid vegetation-free dune areas such as the Rub’ Al-Khali sand sea of southern Saudi Arabia. A particularly good match is found in the east of this extensive sand sea (near 21ºN, 54ºE). This area likewise shows compound linear dune ridges moving obliquely to the prevailing wind direction indicated by the orientation of smaller scale dune components, although the interdune corridors are broader than the Officer Basin example. Coincidently, the ancient Officer Basin dune crest spacing (1 – 1.5 km) is similar to that of the modern vegetation-stabilised longitudinal dunes of the Great Victoria Desert in the same area today, although dune type is different and inferred crest heights are significantly greater in the ancient deposit. Apart from revealing the morphology of an ancient eolian landscape, the relationship with the dated basalt can now be used to infer a precise date for the top of this previously poorly-dated succession, as the dunes were apparently active at the time of entombment in the middle Cambrian. Similar burial of eolian and fluvial landscapes are suggested by aeromagnetic patterns elsewhere in the Kalkarindji Large Igneous Province.


Peter Haines has Honours and PhD degrees from the University of Adelaide. He has worked for the Northern Territory Geological Survey and Universities of South Australia and Tasmania. He is currently with the Geological Survey of Western Australia where he works on Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic basins throughout the state.

Zircon trace element geochemistry as an indicator of magma fertility in iron oxide-copper-gold provinces

Wade, Claire1, 2, Payne, Justin3, Barovich, Karin2, Gilbert, Sarah4, Wade, Benjamin4 , Crowley, James5,  Reid, Anthony1, 2 and Jagodzinski, Elizabeth1

1Geological Survey Of South Australia, , Australia, 2Department of Earth Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia, 3UNISA STEM, University of South Australia, Adelaide, Australia, 4Adelaide Microscopy, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia, 5Department of Geosciences, Boise State University, Boise, United States of America

The trace element signatures of zircon from Phanerozoic porphyry-related magmatic rocks and their mineralising systems have recently been applied as a means to assess potential magmatic suite fertility. The iron oxide-copper-gold (IOCG) and iron oxide-apatite (IOA) deposit family share some genetic attributes with porphyry Cu deposits, including subduction-modified magmatic sources, association with calc-alkaline to mildly alkaline magmas, and highly oxidised magmas. The observed relationship between magma fertility and zircon chemistry in porphyry Cu deposits raises the possibility that the trace element signature of zircon could also be used to assess the fertility of magmatic systems associated with IOCG and IOA systems.

Significant IOCG deposits in southern Australia (Gawler Craton) and IOA deposits in the south-central USA are associated with extrusive and intrusive felsic rocks formed as part of silicic large igneous province magmatism. Zircons from early rhyolitic and granitoid rocks coeval with IOCG mineralisation in the Gawler Craton are distinguished from younger rhyolite and granitoid zircons by their higher Eu/Eu*, Ce/Ce* and Ti values and separate magma evolution paths with respect to Hf. Higher zircon Ce/Ce* and Eu/Eu* correspond to more oxidising magmatic conditions and lower degrees of fractionation and/or crustal assimilation, respectively. Higher zircon Ti contents correspond to higher magmatic temperatures in the magmas coeval with mineralisation. In this respect, we consider higher oxidation state, lower degrees of fractionation and higher magmatic temperatures to be features of fertile magmas in southern Australian IOCG terrains.

Similar zircon REE characteristics are shared between Australian IOCG magmatic rocks and IOA rhyolites from the St Francois Mountains, Missouri. IOCG and IOA magmatic rocks have high Ce/Ce* and high Dy/Yb ratios in zircon, which are indicative of oxidised and dry magmas, respectively. Syn-mineralisation IOCG and IOA magmatic rocks are distinguished from unmineralised ones by their higher Eu/Eu* zircon signature, and higher magmatic temperatures. Zircon Dy/Yb are generally higher and Eu/Eu* are generally lower in IOCG and IOA magmatic rocks when compared with fertile porphyry Cu deposit magmatic rocks. The dry and more fractionated nature of the IOCG and IOA associated magmas contrast with the hydrous and unfractionated nature of fertile porphyry Cu deposit magmas, highlighting differences in setting and magma formation of porphyry Cu deposits and the IOCG-IOA deposit family. As indicated by high zircon Ce/Ce* ratios, the oxidised nature of mineralised IOA magmatic rocks coupled with lower degrees of fractionation and higher magmatic temperatures, are akin to fertile IOCG magmatic rocks and considered to be key elements in magma fertility in IOCG-IOA terrains.


Claire is an employee of the Geological Survey of South Australia undertaking a PhD at the University of Adelaide. Her background is in igneous geochemistry and isotope geochemistry. Her PhD is investigating the link between magmatism and mineralisation in Mesoproterozoic mineral systems in South Australia.

About the GSA

The Geological Society of Australia was established as a non-profit organisation in 1952 to promote, advance and support Earth sciences in Australia.

As a broadly based professional society that aims to represent all Earth Science disciplines, the GSA attracts a wide diversity of members working in a similarly broad range of industries.

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